What Are the Different Types of Spillways Gate?

Jun. 22, 2023

Spillway gates are essential components of dam and reservoir systems, designed to control the flow of water and prevent the overflow of reservoirs during periods of high water levels or flood events. There are various types of spillway gates, each with its own design and operating mechanism. Let's explore the different types of spillway gates in more detail:


1. Fixed Wheel Gate:

Fixed wheel gates, also known as fixed-wheel roller gates, are commonly used in spillway structures. They consist of multiple rectangular panels that can be raised or lowered using a system of fixed wheels. The gate panels are interconnected, allowing for simultaneous movement.


To release water, the gate panels are lifted vertically by rotating the fixed wheels. This creates openings for water to pass through. Fixed wheel gates provide flexibility in controlling the discharge rate by adjusting the gate panels to different positions. They are suitable for moderate to high flow rates and are known for their stability and durability.


2. Radial Gate:

Radial gates, also called Tainter gates, are among the most widely used spillway gates. They consist of curved panels that rotate around a fixed radial arm or trunnion at the top of the gate structure. The gate panels are hinged at the trunnion and can be moved to control the water flow.


In the closed position, the curved surface of the gate panels forms a seal against the surrounding structure, preventing water from passing through. To release water, the gate panels are rotated outward, allowing water to flow over and beneath them. Radial gates offer effective control of high flow rates and are suitable for large water discharges.


Spillways Gate

3. Drum Gate:

Drum gates, also known as drum-type spillway gates, are commonly used in low-head dams and diversion structures. They consist of cylindrical drums that rotate around a horizontal or slightly inclined axis. The drums are equipped with sealing devices to prevent water leakage when in the closed position.


To release water, the drum gates are rotated to an open position, allowing water to pass through the gaps between the drums. The flow rate can be controlled by adjusting the degree of rotation of the drums. Drum gates are known for their simplicity, ease of operation, and suitability for low to moderate flow rates.


4. Sluice Gate:

Sluice gates, also called slide gates or knife gates, are vertically moving gates that slide up and down to control water flow. They consist of flat or rectangular gate panels that slide in grooves or guides on either side of the gate opening. The gate panels can be raised or lowered to regulate water discharge.


Sluice gates are commonly operated using hydraulic or mechanical systems. Hydraulic sluice gates use hydraulic cylinders to lift or lower the gate panels, while mechanical sluice gates use gears, chains, or ropes. Sluice gates are suitable for low to moderate flow rates and are commonly used in smaller dams, channels, or irrigation systems.


5. Crest Gate:

Crest gates, also known as overflow gates or siphon gates, are spillway gates designed to operate over the crest of a dam or spillway structure. They consist of movable panels or gates that can be raised or lowered to control water flow. Crest gates are typically operated by hydraulic or mechanical systems.


When water levels rise, the crest gates are raised to allow water to pass over the dam or spillway structure. By adjusting the height of the gates, the discharge rate can be controlled. Crest gates are often used in situations where water levels exceed the capacity of other spillway gates or to provide additional overflow capacity during flood events.


6. Fuse Gate:

Fuse gates, also known as fuse plugs or fuse weirs, are emergency spillway gates designed to provide controlled overtopping and release of water during high water events. They consist of blocks or panels made of materials that can be easily eroded or removed.


When water levels exceed a predetermined threshold, the fuse gates start to erode or disintegrate, creating openings for water to pass through. This controlled erosion prevents uncontrolled or catastrophic overtopping of the dam and provides a controlled path for water release. Fuse gates are designed to be replaced or repaired after activation.


7. Flip Bucket:

Flip buckets, also called flip bucket spillways or morning glory spillways, are specialized spillway gates used to dissipate the energy of water flow. They consist of a curved chute or bucket located at the downstream end of the spillway. The bucket is designed to deflect the water jet vertically, reducing its velocity and preventing erosion.


Flip buckets are typically used in high-velocity flow conditions, such as in dam spillways or large hydraulic structures. They help to dissipate the energy of the falling water and prevent damage to the downstream environment.


These are some of the common types of spillway gates used in dam and reservoir systems. Each type offers unique features and characteristics to control water flow and prevent overflow. The selection of the appropriate spillway gate depends on factors such as flow rates, dam design, available space, and specific project requirements.

Spillways Gate

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